- Explain how the Party’s methods eliminate martyrs
First lets define what a Martyr is. According to Merriam-Webster, a Martyr is "a person who sacrifices something of great value and especially life itself for the sake of principle". I think that this is the definition that we are looking for in this instance. This is because O'Brien is speaking about people who died for a principle and subsequently birthed a movement of people who wanted to take part in the same acts that got this "Martyr" killed.
O'Brien starts by talking about the Inquisition of the middle ages and how it burned heretics at the stake. It eventually ended up causing thousands of others to rise up for the cause. All the people killed because they would not abandon their beliefs. The died still telling the people in power to go to hell essentially. This caused all the glory to go to the victim in this case, and as stated more people rose up to further the cause. He then touches on the Nazis and Russian Communists. They took it once step further by torturing the victims and wearing them down. The victims were abused and made to confess to crimes. In the end though, it was the same result, because all the confessions were obviously untrue. The people again would pick up on this, and once again glorify the victims.
With the Party however, they do not make these same mistakes. O'Brien mentions how all confessions in Oceania are true. The Party makes them true. So everybody truly believes that people arrested and put in prison are there for a very good reason. The cause of say, the Brotherhood, is never glorified. People do not seek it out. Remember Winston's job at the Ministry of Truth? To rectify the past to make the Party always be right. The Party is infallible, they can do no wrong, so when they say you committed a crime, then YOU COMMITED THAT CRIME. Yes, Winston confesses to a bunch of things he didn't actually do, but it won't matter if he tries to fight it, nobody is going to believe him.
- How deep does the Party’s lie go????
I know this is kind of a general question but the question and answer portion at the end of Chapter 3, Part 2 really opened my eyes. The Party's propaganda is so powerful that it stretches into the past and has made people believe things are real when they probably aren't.
Take the look O'Brien gave to Winston back in Chapter 1. I can now infer that it was all a plot to get Winston to believe O'Brien was on his side. Same thing with the meeting at O'Brien's house. He has been watching and keeping tabs on Winston for years, seemingly knowing that Winston would crack and want to break free from the Party. I find it interesting that he actually gives him the book that shows him the truth about the world he lives in ("Goldstein's" book). Perhaps he knows Winston's fate, and it won't do any harm to tell him the truth because they will eventually correct his mind and revolutionary course he has gone down. We can now also say that Charrington set up Winston with the room to probably monitor him. Who knows how long that telescreen was in there....
Two things that have been propped up by the Party are the countervailing forces of a good and bad guy. From the conversation, the Party has successfully made people believe in Big Brother and the Brotherhood. I really don't think either exist. Big Brother, in order to absolute and the ultimate truth, is made to be fictional so that he can never die. Big Brother will always be Big Brother, from the past to the future. Just like the war is propped up to keep the people in fear, the Brotherhood and Goldstein are pushed to give the people something to hate. Again, I really don't think they exist, they are there to have a foil for Big Brother to fight against. This gives Big Brother that protector aura. Big Brother will always look out for you!